cosmopolitanism

a blog on English and cultures in a cosmopolitan world

Bibliography (J) like Jakubowicz


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Last update: 4 november 2012

Jackson, Jesse. 1988. quotations. 

…just as we were called colored, but were not that…and then Negro, but not that…to be called Black is just as baseless…Black tells you about your skin color and what side of town you live on. African American evokes discussion of the world.

quoted by Baugh, J. (1999). Out of the Mouths of Slaves: African American Language and Educational Malpractice. Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press.

___ 1988. Speech at Ceremonies in honor of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

quoted by Baugh, J. (1999). Out of the Mouths of Slaves: African American Language and Educational Malpractice. Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press.

___1996. ‘Black English’ proposal draws fire. CNN page on Ebonics; Education secretary: No federal funds for ‘black  English’, December 22nd 1996.

– December 22, 1996

Symbolic move in Oakland touches a nerve
December 22, 1996
Web posted at: 7:50 p.m. EST

(CNN) — So far it’s little more than a vague idea, but a proposal by a California school board last week to recognize Black English as a second language has already sparked a firestorm of debate.
“I am incensed,” said poet Maya Angelou, who recited one of her poems at President Clinton’s inauguration. “The very idea that African-American language is a language separate and apart can be very threatening, because it can encourage young men and women not to learn standard English.” (403K/36 sec. AIFF or WAV
sound)

The Rev. Jesse Jackson also blasted the proposal, which was announced Wednesday by the California School Board to officially recognize Black English, also know as Ebonics, a term combining “ebony” and
“phonics.”

“While we are fighting in California trying to extend affirmative action and fighting to teach our children so
they become more qualified for jobs, in Oakland some madness has erupted over making slang talk a second
language,” Jackson said in a statement.

“You don’t have to go to school to learn to talk garbage,” he said.

School board members said the idea behind the proposal is to improve performance of black students, who
make up 53 percent of the district and 71 percent of those enrolled in special-education courses.

“What we are doing in Oakland is providing our teachers and parents with the tools to address the diverse languages our children bring into the classroom,” said a school board statement.
“We have to acknowledge that all of our students do not come to us speaking standard English,” added Lucella Harrison, president of the Oakland School Board.

How the new policy will be implemented isn’t yet clear, but Oakland school officials have said they may ask for federal money to help African-American students who primarily speak Ebonics.

Black English speaking students may be placed in classes that will help them to learn standard English, and
teachers may be trained to understand Black English.

“You don’t have to go to school to learn to talk garbage.”
— The Rev. Jesse Jackson

Oakland’s decision directly affects only the 52,000 students in the district. But the idea that Black English is
a “genetically-based” language with roots in Western Africa — and not just slang — is highly symbolic of
the nation’s larger racial divide.

Many believe Oakland’s move has widespread implications on race, language and society. “This hurts the
kds, that’s the real tragedy of it,” said John Fonte, a visiting scholar in education at the American Enterprise
Institute in Washington. “The way to learn English is to study English.”

Black English has already been taught in a number of schools such as Ann Arbor, Michigan. But Oakland
appears to be the first district to make a system-wide change.

The American Speech, Language and Hearing Association has classified Black English as a social dialect.

English words in Black English tend to lose a “d” following a vowel, so “good” becomes “goo,” and the
final “th” is sometime is replaced with “f,” so “with” becomes “wif.”

Critics say encouraging this non-standard English could give students the idea that Ebonics is a viable
language in the workplace, a mistake that could hinder their job searches and careers.

Said Ryan Cameron, a rap radio disc jockey: “It’s something that people use among their friends, but it’s not
something that they have to do to get ahead or have to do to get a job.”

December 24,
Web posted at: 8:15 p.m. EST

WASHINGTON (CNN) — Education Secretary Richard Riley repeated the
government’s position Tuesday that black English, or Ebonics, is not a distinct
language from standard English and is ineligible for federal bilingual funding.

“Elevating black English to the status of a language is not the way to raise standards of achievement in our
schools and for our students,” he said. “The administration’s policy is that Ebonics is a non-standard form
of English and not a foreign language.”

The Oakland, California, school board voted last week to recognize Ebonics as a legitimate language spoken
by many of their African-American students.

The decision was denounced by many. The Rev. Jesse Jackson, head of the Rainbow/PUSH Action
Network, said the move was an “unacceptable surrender, borderlining on disgrace.” District administrators
said they want to reach out to students who feel their spoken language is being ignored, and help them
learn standard English.

Jackson, Peter, and Jan Penrose, eds. 1993. Constructions of Race, Place and Nation. 1st ed. London: University College London Press.

Jakubowicz, A., Goodall H., Martin J., Mitchell T., Randall L., and Seneviratne K. 1994. Racism, Ethnicity and the Media. St Leonards NSW: George Allen & Unwin.

Jarrett, Valerie (2012), ‘Keynote address from the Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama’, J Street: Making History (Washington D.C.).

Obama is steadfastly determined to commit to a just and lasting peace. Many of you are frustrated. True peace cannot be imposed from the outside but is in the long term interest of the world. Pursuing peace Israel security is iron clad
FREEDOM AND PEACE, COMMON SECURITY, we must keep fighting for our shared values. Let’s make history.
USA domestic policy, Obama, elections USA. Pas dans le programme mais seulement en addendum…

Jeambar, Denis. 1999. Garder sa langue. , July 1st, 1999, 5.

 Plus que tout autre pays européen, la France oppose le pluriel de  sa diversité extrême (des paysages, des hommes, des idées ou…  des fromages) au singulier de sa République (indivisible) et de sa  langue (constitutionnalisée par l’article 2 de nos institutions).  Cette conjugaison des contraires est, en fait, le secret de son  identité. Essentielle, elle endigue les particularismes et régule les  passions. Fragile, elle exige une ascèse républicaine, voire un  orgueil, que notre époque, prompte au relâchement, ne supporte  plus guère. Ainsi, parce que les fondements de notre Constitution  – la laïcité et la langue unique – sont atypiques et à rebours de la  mondialisation, faudrait-il, aujourd’hui, les passer par pertes et  profits en faisant le lit des langues régionales, que personne  n’interdit d’enseigner par ailleurs? Parfaitement incohérents, les  mêmes qui louent notre exception et prônent des quotas pour  protéger les oeuvres culturelles européennes des assauts  anglo-saxons deviennent les hérauts des dialectes minoritaires  qu’ils entendent élever au rang du français. Certes, l’humeur du  monde change, mais notre pays ne peut ignorer son long passé.  Cela serait-il si archaïque, ringard ou passéiste que de se faire  une certaine idée de la France républicaine et de sa langue?  Non. Abandonner ce combat-là, c’est, comme l’a dit le Conseil  constitutionnel, porter atteinte aux assises de notre pays.

Jeffs, Allyson. 1993. Canadians Harbor “latently Racist” Attitudes: Poll. Southam News, 14 décembre.

Cité par Bissoondath, Neil.   Le Marché aux Illusions: la méprise du multiculturalisme.  Trans. Jean Papineau.  Montréal: Boréal, 1995: 16: La Gazette de Montréal qui, le même jour, rapporte également la nouvelle met l’accent sur l’interprétation de l’enquête plutot que sur ses résultats, sous la manchette: “les Canadiens affichent des attitudes “racistes latentes”. La majorité rejette la diversité culturelle et pense que les groupes ethniques devraient tenter de s’intégrer”.

Jensen, Arthur. 1969. How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Harvard Educational Review (39):1-123.

quoted by Baugh, J. (1999). Out of the Mouths of Slaves: African American Language and Educational Malpractice. Austin, Texas, University of Texas Press. p. 9 on a section entitled Jensen’s hypothesis and the linguistic society of america response.
also quoted by Casey, J.W. 1998. ‘The Ebonics Controversy: Critical Perspectives on African-American Vernacular English’. The Keiai Journal of International Studies 1: 179-214.

Jenson, Jane. 1993. Naming Nations: Making Nationalist Claims in Canadian Public Discourse. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology (29):385-396.

quoted by Kymlicka, Will. Multicultural Citizenship. Edited by David Miller and Alan Ryan, Oxford Political Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Jernud, Björn, and Sung-Hwan Joe. 1985. Bilingualism as a Resource in the United States. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 6:10-18.

Jimenez Quispe, Luz (2011), ‘Educacion y descolonizacion en Bolivia, El desarollo de capacidades en interculturalidad en las politicas publicas nacionales y locales’, paper given at World Conference on the Education of the Indigenous People.

Welcomes us in Aymara. aymara in 4 countries bolivia, peru and northern…..Our president is Aymara. We are in the middle of a great change in education and culture in our country. We are recuperating our own history and spirit. I will be dealing with Bolivia today, the cultural revolution taking place right now, Challenges in the future. I speak as an urban aymara activist and academic educator. My country is the belly button of the world. We are, as indigenous movement, trying a new world vision. We need to create a humanity thinking through many bodies and one mind. Decolonisation means a historical fact as well as a contemporary situation. Bolivia has 10 million inhab. adm. capital Sucre. Population in urban areas has drastically increased from 26% in 1950 to 63% today. How are we going to build this country. Indigenous populations now are fragmented. since 1900s, the indigenous have fought for education (they had to have secret schools where it was forbidden to learn the alphabet because an educated indian is a lost indian), to defend our land, our mother, preserve our autonomy. We are trying to change things but the colonial model is still prevalent in the Americans. We want independance in the Americans. These clandestine schools were connected to the indigenous movements and their leaders were teaching there. That’s when was created the Ayllu schools. In it was discussed life from the wisdom and knowledge of our population. 10 years later, it was closed down by government. In 1952 was when Indigenous were granted schooling right, citizenship, agrarian reform, the right to vote and nationalisation of the resources. In 1931 in my country, there were two types of IDs, the citizens and the Indians.
From 1955 to 1994 the assimilation was the form of education. Only in spanish, using indigenous languages only as a tool to make kids understand.
two education models, urban and rural (=indian). We were citizens of second class, we were ashamed of of our history, language and culture, forbidden to use our native languages in any space in schools. We grew up looking towards Europe instead of where we were. No traditions, no languages….The Education reform of 1994 meant BIE for all, new curriculas, training of teachers, change of infrastructure, researcher, quality control and one big mistage, the constituion of Indigenous Education Committee CEPO. That’s when we started wonderning why we were only educated to become second class citizen. So from 2004 we started making indigenous claims on autodeterminations, territorial organisation, EIB fora ll, relation between eco development and educative development, training of teachers in EIB, Indigenous University, learning to produce respecting the land instead of producing the land to the point of destroying it. So this model had to encompass these development.
2004 language project
2006 Law education project
Not only the law but the constitution was changed to include all the indigenous languages as official. Every service has to be bilingual. They have two years to learn one indigenous language if they want to keep their job. First and for all we look at our own group. We look at the answers in our own roots, history and experience. We dream of a new Latin america where indigenous people will dance and pray together, but also produce together. For the moment, Latin america produces for the whole wolrd and we get nothing but debt in return.
We are now working on a new organisation model (government of bolivia webpage ) We think bottom to top, starting with family, community, country and world. The fight is now epistemologic.
We should have our own evaluation with our own criteria
theoretical implcation: critic of colonisation and starting from indigenous movement. The knowledge should come from our own community and physical territory. Our indigenous population is in fact 80% of the total population and in the government it’s 70%

Jessop, B (1999), ‘The Changing Governance of Welfare’, Social Policy and Administration, (33), 348-59.

quoted by Morris, Lydia (2012 ), ‘Citizenship and Human Rights’, The British Journal of Sociology 2, 63 (1).

Jiobu, R.M. 1988. Ethnicity & Assimilation: Blacks, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, Mexicans, Vietnamese, and Whites. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.

John, Balz. 1999. Black Pupils Optimistic, Study finds. Los Angeles Times, Herald Tribune, Aug. 11.12, 1999, 3.

Washington- The vast majority of black high school students believe that if they work hard, they will have more opportunities, according to a report by a nonprofit educational group.
More than 8 out of 10 said they believed hard work will yield more opportunities after high school, an increase of nearly 29^0% from the previous year, acording bto a study tby the Horation Alger Association released Tuesday (Aug. 11).
That figure stook in sharp contrast to findings for other ethnic groups (only 71% of white students and 68% of other minorities who responded said hard work would lead to more opossibilities.
But the optimism among black students 3was tempered by concerns that the playing field remiains unequal. Only 40% of blacks said all reaces and social classes have the same opportunities, compared with 60% of white students, the study found.
Some scholoars in black studies said the student idealism is a gift that is not necessarily shared by their eleders. Mary Pattillo-McCoy, a sociology profesosr at Northwestern University said the racism that many young blacks may encounter is more subtle and covernt.
“tHE NEW RACISM IS AS PERNICIOUS AS THE OLD BECAUSE OF ITS INVISIBILITY”. Ms Pattillo-McCoy siad. “It takes the experience”

Johns, Brian. 1991. SBS: Coping with a Strange Idea. In Multicultural Australia: the challenges of change, edited by D. Goodman, D. J. O’Hearn and C. Wallace-Crabbe. Melbourne: Scribe.

Johnston, Darlene, M. 1995. Native Rights as Collective Rights: A Question of Group Self-Preservation. In The Rights of Minority Cultures, edited by W. Kymlicka. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jonasson, Jonas (2011), Le vieux qui ne voulait pas fêter son anniversaire, trans. Caroline Berg (Paris: Presses de la Cité (Pocket)).

p. 134: (…)la seule façon d’arrondire les angles serait de donner à Mabelle une part du gâteau. C’était la solution à laquelle avait pensé Allan, mais il ajouta qu’il faudrait éviter, à l’avenir, d’informer une personne par jour du fait qu’ils volaient les valises des gens, les tuaient quand ils essayer de récupérer leur bien, puis les emballaient bien proprement dans un colis en partance pour l’Afrique
.p. 185: Allan Karlsson voyagea seul deux mois de plus, tanguant sur le dos de son hameau, jusqu’à ce qu’il rencontre trois étrangers, eux aussi juchés sur des chamaeaux. Allan les salua dans toutes les langues qu’il connaissait: chinois, espagnol, anglais et suédois. Par chance, l’anglais fonctionna.
p. 259:: (…)Allan interrompit les deux frères en leur disant que s’il y avait une chose qu’il avait apprise en parcourant le monde, c’était que les plus insolubles conflits de la planète avaient démarré de cette façon: “t’es bête!” – non, c’est toi qui es bête -Non c’est toi!” La solutionétait bien souvent de partager une buteille d’une contenance minimale de soixante-quinze cientilitres, puis de regarder vers l’avenir (…)
– Alors tu penses que soixante-quinze centilitres d’alcool pourraient résoudre le conflit entre Israël et la Palestine? lui demanda Bosse. L’histoire remonte quand même jusqu’à l’époque de la Bible!
– Pour ce conflit là, il faudrait peut-.être augmenter la dose, mais le principe reste le même.
P. 315: Allan avait appris aussi que les Etats-Unis, la France et la Grande-Bretagne s’étaient alliés et avait fondé une sorte de confédération allemande. Staline, furieux, avait aussitôt riposté en fondant sa propre Allemagne, ainsi l’Ouest et l’Est avaient chacun la sienne et Allan trouva que c’était une bonne idée.
p. 323: Ton baraquement se trouve vers la gauche, Einstein! cria le gardien dans son dos. Ce n’est pas possible d’être aussi empoté!
Allan félicita Herbert d’avoir si bien joué son rôle et celui-ci rougit sous le compliment tout en minimisant son mérite.Il dit avec modestie qu’il n’était pas difficile de se faire passer pourun idiot quand on l’était réellement. Allan n’était pas d’accord avec son ami, parce que tous les imbéciles qu’il avait rencontrés dans sa vie essayaient de se faire passer pour le contraire.
p. 362: -Combien payent-ils d’impôts, ces types-là? Ils viennent ici assassiner notre belle jeunesse suédoise, il faut arrêter l’immigration massive, vous m’entendez?
Aronsson dit qu’il avait parfaitement entendu, qu’il le remerciait du tuyau, même si en l’occurrence le vendeur de hot dogs s’appelait Ljungberg et qu’il était tout ce qui’il y a de plus suédois, donc ni turc, ni arabe. L’impsecteur ne pouvait bien sûr pas affirmer que Ljungberg n’était pas musulman. D’ailleurs cela lui était complêtement égal.
– Mais sons sommes nombreux et nos rangs grossissent tout les jours, tu verras ça aux prochaines élections(…)
Aronsson craignait qu’il n’est raison sur ce dernier point. La pire chose à faire quand on était une personne cultivée et lucide était d’envoyer promener ce genre de types et de leur raccorcher au nez. Il fallait au contraire élever le débat. Aronsson en avait bien conscience quand il envoya le tye promener et qu’il lui raccrocha au nez.
p. 377: La future madame l’embassadeur lui fournirait en même temps un poste à l’ambassade, non pas qu’Allan soit obligé de travailler, mais les Français avaient la réputation d’être pointilleux quand il s’agissait d’accueillir des étrangers chez eux

Joseph, Sara (1999), Interrogating culture: critical perspectives on contemporary social theory (Delhi: Sage).

Journalist (1982), ‘Judge Rejects suits for Translation’, New York Times, 24 oct., p. 49.

A l’origine du No. 60 de l’IJSL sur la question de la langue officielle et des droits linguistiques en 1986.

Jowett, Garth. 1976. Film: The Democratic Art. Boston: Little, Brown.

Judd, E.L. 1989. Language Policy at the 100th Congress. Paper read at 23d TESOL Convention, at San Antonio, Texas.

July, Serge. 2002. Affreux. Libération, 22 avril 2002, 3.

Une France affreuse triomphe. La gauche jospino-plurielle suicidée, éliminée du second tour, et, en finale, un face-à-face caricatueral et à bien des égards honteux entre Supermenteur et Superfacho. Le système politique français en déséquilibre depuis des années, a fini par imploser. Jacques Chirac est naturellemetn promis à une réélection triomphale face au danger Le Pen. Il rassemblera logiqueemnt tous les votes républicains. (…)
Le Chef de l’Etat, en imposant une campagne monothématique sur la sécurité pendant deux mois a ouvert la boîte de Pandore. Le glacis sécuritaire a piégé Lionel Jospin qui, dasn sa raideur, n’a pas voulu changer de campagne et, lorsqu’il a pris conscience de l’ampleur de l’appel d’air sécuritaire, a choisi de suivre son rival sur ce terrain, en collant à lui, jusqu’à perdre toute identité. La sécurité a douché le bilan jospinien sur le plan économique et social, en le rendant inaudible. Enfin, la surenchère sécuritaire a remis en selle Le Pen, revenu du diable vauvert, ressuscité de la scission de sa boutique.(…)
C’est un gouffre sinistre qui a englouti toute la campagne. On peut juger le procédé chiraquien démagogique, mais l’ampèleur du résultat montre que toute la réalité a été vue à travers le prisme de l’insécurité. (…)
Il vaut mieux le savoir:L la France est un pays déboussolé, affolé, qui a peur de ses ombres, qui, politiqueemnt, n’arrive pas à se tourner vers l’avenir.
L’élimination de Lionel Jospin est injuste à plusieurs titres. L’honnête homme éliminé par le président discrédité et sans bilan et par le grand blond autoritaire et raciste, ce n’est pas spécialement glorieux pour notre pays.(…)
Les choix de la gauche auront aussi pesé dans ce naufrage. La gauche plurielle a fait meute contre le bilan de Lionel Jospin, le déllégitimant un peu plus chaque jour, dans une grande surenchère suicidaire. (…)
Le suicide pour les composantes de la gauche plurielle est à peu près général. Il ne reste à peu près rien du Parti communiste.(…)
La démocratie française est comateuse.

Jupp, James. 1991. Immigration. Sydney: Sydney University Press.

___991. One among many. In Multicultural Australia, edited by D. Goodman, D. J. O’Hearn and C. Wallace-Crabbe. Melbourne: Scribe.

Justice, R.W. Fox. 1977. Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry: second report. Canberra: AGPS.

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